Work values taxonomy used by us is based on the Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA) developed at the University of Minnesota (Dawis, England, Lofquist, 1964; Dawis & Lofquist,1984). This theory proposes that job satisfaction is directly related to the degree to which a person's values and corresponding needs are satisfied by his or her work environment. The TWA identifies six primary work values each with a corresponding set of needs. These are described below.
Achievement - Individuals with this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
- Ability Utilization - Individuals like to make use of their individual abilities.
- Achievement - Individuals like to get a feeling of accomplishment.
Working Conditions - Individuals with this work value like job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
- Activity - Individuals like to be busy all the time.
- Independence - Individuals like to do their work alone.
- Variety - Individuals like to do something different every day.
- Compensation - Individuals like to be paid well in comparison with other workers.
- Security - Individuals like to have steady employment.
- Working Conditions - Individuals like to have good working conditions.
Recognition - Individuals with these work values need advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
- Advancement - Individuals like to have opportunities for advancement.
- Recognition - Individuals like to receive recognition for the work they do.
- Authority - Individuals like to give directions and instructions to others.
- Social Status - Individuals like to be looked up to by others in their company and their community.
Relationships -Individuals with these work value need to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
- Co-workers - Individuals like to have co-workers who are easy to get along with.
- Social Service - Individuals like to have work where they do things for other people.
- Moral Values - Individuals like to be never pressured to do things that go against their sense of right and wrong.
Support - Individuals with these work values like to have supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
- Company Policies and Practices -Individuals like to be treated fairly by the company.
- Supervision, Human Relations -Individuals like to have supervisors who back up their workers with management.
- Supervision, Technical - Individuals like to have supervisors who train their workers well.
Independence - Individuals with this work value need to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
- Creativity - Individuals like to try out their own ideas.
- Responsibility - Individuals like to make decisions on their own.
- Autonomy - Individuals like to plan their work with little supervision.
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